AEC Open Data Standards Directory

From Wiki.OSArch

Open data standards allow AEC tools to exchange datasets in a transparent and reliable manner.

This page is a directory of open file formats and data standards. For a comparison of some popular file formats see File format comparison

Image Name Description Website
3D Tiles (b3dm, i3dm, pnts, cmpt) TODO TODO
Brick Brick is an open-source effort to standardize semantic descriptions of the physical, logical and virtual assets in buildings and the relationships between them. Brick consists of an extensible dictionary of terms and concepts in and around buildings, a set of relationships for linking and composing concepts together, and a flexible data model permitting seamless integration of Brick with existing tools and databases. Brickschema official website]
Building Collaboration Format (BCF) "The BIM Collaboration Format (BCF) allows different BIM applications to communicate model-based issues with each other by leveraging IFC models that have been previously shared among project collaborators. BCF was created for facilitating open communications and improving IFC-based processes to more readily identify and exchange model-based issues between BIM software tools, bypassing proprietary formats and workflows." BCF at Wikipedia BCF at buildingSmart
Building Topology Ontology "Building Topology Ontology (BOT) as a core vocabulary to this approach. It provides a high-level description of the topology of buildings including storeys and spaces, the building elements they contain, and their web-friendly 3D models. We describe how existing applications produce and consume datasets combining BOT with other ontologies that describe product catalogues, sensor observations, or Internet of Things (IoT) devices effectively implementing BIM Maturity Level 3." Draft CityGML OGC official website
CityGML CityGML is an open data model and XML-based format for the storage and exchange of virtual 3D city models. It is an application schema for the Geography Markup Language version 3.1.1 (GML3), the extendible international standard for spatial data exchange issued by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the ISO TC211. CityGML official website

research paper

Digital Buildings Project The Digital Buildings project is an open-source, Apache-licensed effort to create a uniform schema and toolset for representing structured information about buildings and building-installed equipment. A version of the Digital Buildings ontology and toolset is currently being used by Google to manage buildings in its portfolio. Github
Digital Twins Definition Language ( + RealEstateCore) The Digital Twins Definition Language (DTDL) is a language for describing models and interfaces for IoT digital twins. Digital twins are models of entities in the physical environment such as shipping containers, rooms, factory floors, or logical entities that participate in IoT solutions. Using DTDL to describe a digital twin's capabilities enables the IoT platform and IoT solutions to leverage the semantics of the entity. Github Building Github
Drawing Exchange Format (DXF) Drawing Exchange Format (DXF) is a file format designed by Autodesk to allow exchange with their AutoCAD software. While they publish specs it is not an open format as they alone control iterations to the format. Autodesk and the Open Design Alliance sell commercial licenses for accessing DXF files. There is generally good support for DXF is libre software. DXF at Wikipedia

DXF Reference

Green Building XML (gbXML) "It is the language of buildings that allows disparate 3D building information models (BIM) and architectural/engineering analysis software to share information with each other" gbXML official website
GeoJSON GeoJSON is a geospatial data interchange format based on JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). It defines several types of JSON objects and the manner in which they are combined to represent data about geographic features, their properties, and their spatial extents. GeoJSON uses a geographic coordinate reference system, World Geodetic System 1984, and units of decimal degrees. GeoJson official website

RFC7946 official website

GeoPackage (gpkg) GeoPackage is an open, standards-based, platform-independent, portable, self-describing, compact format for transferring geospatial information. The GeoPackage Encoding Standard describes a set of conventions for storing the following within an SQLite database: vector features, tile matrix sets of imagery and raster maps at various scales, attributes (non-spatial data) and extensions. GeoPackage official website
GL Transmission Format (glTF) "Why we should all support glTF 2.0 as THE standard asset exchange format for game engines" on GODOT open source game engine blog.

"glTF™ (GL Transmission Format) is a royalty-free specification for the efficient transmission and loading of 3D scenes and models by applications. glTF minimizes both the size of 3D assets, and the runtime processing needed to unpack and use those assets. glTF defines an extensible, common publishing format for 3D content tools and services that streamlines authoring workflows and enables interoperable use of content across the industry."

glTF on wikipedia

glTF official website

Hierarchical Data Format (HDF, HDF4, HDF5) TODO TODO
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC, ifc, ifcxml, ifczip) "IFC is a standardized, digital description of the built asset industry. It is an open, international standard (ISO 16739-1:2018) and promotes vendor-neutral, or agnostic, and usable capabilities across a wide range of hardware devices, software platforms, and interfaces for many different use cases." (from buildingSmart) IFC at buildingSmart IFC at Wikipedia
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) TODO TODO
Materialsdb image.png materialsdb "..allows providers to independently manage their own building material database and does not require a central database. The building physics software can access the various decentralised databases via a DLL (Dynamic Link Library). The xml file delivered by the providers contains two sets of data: a list of materials and a catalogue of pre-calculated elements. It contains all the information required by building physics software, i.e. geometry, thermal properties, acoustic properties, life cycle energy and emissions data, etc. The format developed is flexible enough so that it is not necessary for providers to provide the full set of data."
Open Shading Language (OSL) TODO TODO
OpenCDE "Current industry practice of data exchange between common data environments is inefficient and costly. Commercial reasons aside, CDE Vendors have real technical challenges for developing sustainable integrations." opencde at buildingSmart
Polygon File Format (PLY) TODO TODO
Project Haystack Project Haystack is an open source initiative to streamline working with data from the Internet of Things. We standardize semantic data models and web services with the goal of making it easier to unlock value from the vast quantity of data being generated by the smart devices that permeate our homes, buildings, factories, and cities. Applications include automation, control, energy, HVAC, lighting, and other environmental systems. Official website
Radiance (hdr, rad, mat, etc) TODO TODO
Real Estate Core RealEstateCore is a common language that will enable control over buildings and development of new services – the facilitator of the promises of a digital transformation. RealEstateCore is a domain ontology preparing buildings to interact with the Smart City. Official website - Specification
SAF logo.png Structural Analysis Format (SAF) SAF is an initiative from the Nemetschek Group to improve the collaboration between structural engineers by developing an open exchange format for exchanging data between structural analysis software based on the Excel format. It is focusing on a practical, easy to use, format that can be used in daily practise by structural engineers. It is meant as open format and we look forward to you joining this initiative website
1200px-SVG logo.svg.png Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) SVG is an image format developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for vector graphics. SVG uses an XML format and is easy to generate on the fly and edit in many programs. Inkscape and Krita are leading examples of vector graphics editors using the SVG format, but many other programs can export to SVG. website
STEP ISO 10303 is an International Standard for the computer-interpretable representation of product information and for the exchange of product data. The objective is to provide a neutral mechanism capable of describing products throughout their life cycle. This mechanism is suitable not only for neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing and sharing product databases, and as a basis for archiving. Public ISO final draft
Universal Scene Description (USD) TODO TODO
Extensible Markup Language (XML) TODO TODO